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Weld Penetration, lincoln Electric, canada

This Welding Innovations article from the James. Shallow Penetration, penetration refers to the depth the weld enters into the base metal, and usually is not visible.

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As penetration increases, so does the volume of base plate that is melted and combined with the filler metal in the resulting weld puddle. Sufficient bevel is required for good bead shape and penetration; insufficient bevel prevents the electrode from getting into the joint. Proper joint dimensions are those which allow enough access of the electrode into the joint so that good welding techniques can be used to achieve complete fusion with the base plates (and steel backing bar).